The art of Naha-te, founded by Higaonna Kanryo, forms the basis of Goju Ryu Karate. Higaonna Kanryo was born in 1853 and was part of the lower gentry. He longed to study in China the art of Chinese Kempo, however, was lacking in financial means until he was introduced to the owner of a ship. Fortunately, the owner granted him passage and Kanryo Higaonna Sensei soon arrived at the port city of Fuzhou, the only city in China engaged in trade with Okinawa at that time. Eventually, he was introduced to Master Ryu Ryuko. Higaonna Kanryo spent sixteen years in Fuzhou, China, studying under Master Ryu Ryuko and become like a son to him. He also became well known throughout the region as a great martial artist. Upon his return to Okinawa, Higaonna Kanryo paid his respects to the owner of the ship, Yoshimura, and began teaching his sons the art he had learned. As the word spread of his great skill, he soon also taught members of the royal family. Later he opened his own dojo. Kanryo Higaonna Sensei was especially known for his incredible speed, strength and power and his art became known as Naha-di (te).
The actual founder of the Goju Ryu karate was Miyagi Chojun, a personal disciple of Higaonna Kanryo. At the age of 14, Miyagi Chojun met Higaonna Kanryo and together they devoted their lives to the improvement and advancement of the art of Naha-te. They spent thirteen years together until Higaonna Kanryo passed away in 1916. Miyagi Chojun family was part of the gentry. They owned two trading ships that imported medicine from China for both the government and private individuals. The same year Higaonna Kanryo died, Miyagi Chojun left for China to discover the roots of Naha-te in the city of Fuzhou. Unfortunately, all had fled during the revolutionary war and he returned to Okinawa. Miyagi Chojun was a man of strong will and excelled in his studies. He trained daily, often with nature in harsh elements, and practised various exercises to develop his senses. He created several Kata and sometimes would receive instructions from his dreams.
In addition to his personal training and development of Naha-te, Miyagi Chojun spent a great deal of his time promoting the art. In 1921, he performed a demonstration of Naha-te in Okinawa for the visiting Prince Hirohito, Emperor of Japan, and in 1925 for Prince Chichibu. Miyagi Chojun had already envisioned the development of Naha-te not only in Japan but also around the world. It became increasingly important to organize and unify Okinawan karate as a cultural treasure to be passed on to future generations. In 1926, Miyagi Chojun Sensei established the Karate Research Club in Wakas-Cho. Four instructors, Miyagi Chojun, Hanashiro, Motobu and Mabuni, taught alternately some preliminary exercises and supplemental exercises. Afterwards, Miyagi Chojun gave talks to the students about mankind, daily life, and the samurai code of ethics in order to improve their moral development as well. In 1927, Kano Jigoro, founder of Judo, saw a demonstration of a Kata by Miyagi Chojun and was impressed by the advanced technique and sophistication of Naha-te. With Kano Jigoro influence, Miyagi Chojun was allowed to perform Okinawan karate at leading Japanese Budo tournaments sponsored by the government. In 1930, Miyagi Chojun performed at the Butoku Kai Tournament and at the Sainei Budo Tournament in 1932.
As its exposure increased, many became interested in Miyagi Chojun art. One of Miyagi Chojun senior disciples, Shinzato Jinan, gave a performance of Kata at a Japanese martial arts tournament. Afterwards, a master asked the name of his school. Shinzato had no answer for him, returned to Okinawa and told Miyagi Chojun about his encounter. In order to promote his art as well as cooperate with other schools of Japanese martial arts, Miyagi Chojun decided it was necessary to name his art. It became known as “Goju Ryu” Karate, meaning “hard and soft” taken from the precepts of traditional Chinese Kempo (see below). He was the first among different schools of karate to name his art and in 1933 his art of Goju Ryu was formally registered at the Butoku Kai, Japanese Martial Arts Association.
During the 1930’s, Miyagi Chojun actively developed and promoted Karate-do in Japan and throughout the world. For example, in 1934, a Hawaiian newspaper company invited him to Hawaii in order to introduce and populate karate in Hawaii. In 1936, Miyagi Chojun spent two months in Shanghai, China, for further study of Chinese martial arts. In 1937, he was awarded a commendation by the Butoku Kai for his Kata. Miyagi Chojun developed Goju Ryu by analyzing and employing scientific methods of exercise. In 1940, he created Kata “Gekisai Dai Ichi” and “Gekisai Dai Ni” with the purpose of popularizing karate and improving the physical education of young people. He also created “Tensho” Kata emphasizing the softness of the art whereas “Sanchin” Kata emphasizes the hardness.
A tragic period ensued in the 1940’s as a result of World War II and Miyagi Chojun stopped teaching. During this period he lost a son and a senior student while enduring the devastation of war and poverty. After the war, Okinawan karate spread rapidly throughout mainland Japan. Miyagi Chojun taught karate in Kansai, Japan, for a short time. In 1946, however, he started teaching karate at the Okinawan Police Academy as well as in the backyard of his home in Tsuboya where his son still lives today.
From the beginning, Miyagi Chojun recognized karate as a valuable social treasure of Okinawa. He devoted his entire life to the study, development and transmission of Okinawan karate for the sake of future generations and is truly known as the founder of Goju Ryu Karate-do. During his lifetime, Miyagi Chojun was known and respected by everyone not only in Okinawa but also respected throughout the world as one of karate?s greatest authorities.
Miyagi Chojun Sensei chose the name “Goju Ryu” from the “Eight Precepts” of traditional Chinese Kempo found in the document “Bubishi” and are as follows:
- The mind is one with heaven and earth.
- The circulatory rhythm of the body is similar to the cycle of the sun and the moon.
- The way of inhaling and exhaling is hardness and softness.
- Act in accordance with time and change.
- Techniques will occur in the absence of conscious thought.
- The feet must advance and retreat, separate and meet.
- The eyes do not miss even the slightest change.
- The ears listen well in all directions.
These eight precepts are the essence of the martial arts and are the elements one strives to achieve in training Goju Ryu Karate-do. Such training shall serve to lead humankind to rediscover our natural instincts and capabilities.